Only in true emergencies can the U.S. Embassy in Santo Domingo issue a passport locally. Examples of such emergencies might include illness of the traveler and need for medical treatment in the U.S., grave illness or death of a close family member, or (for tourists only) imminent scheduled return travel to the U.S. after a passport has been lost or stolen. (Note: The “imminent scheduled return travel” exception does NOT apply to U.S. citizens residing in the Dominican Republic.)
Because we do not want passports without digitized photographs or the other latest security features to remain valid for an extended period of time, emergency passports issued at the U.S. Embassy in Santo Domingo are limited in validity and may not be extended. U.S. citizens receiving such passports must re-apply to have their limited-validity passports replaced by the more technologically advanced version. There is no additional cost for the replacement passport so long as you apply for it before the emergency passport expires.